Universal Menu Book/Appendix/Glossary of terms

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AIM:
An acronym for Association for Automatic Identification and Mobility. This is referring to an organization that is an authority for standards for bar codes.

ASCII:
An acronym for American Standard Code for Information Interchange. This refers to a set of 128 characters that are standardized. These characters include all basic English characters, digits, punctuation characters and control characters.

Bar:
The dark element of a printed symbol.

Bar code:
An array of parallel rectangular bars and spaces which together represent data elements of characters in a particular symbology. The bars and spaces are arranged in a predetermined pattern, following unambiguous rules defined by the symbology.

Bar code density:
The number of bar code characters which can be represented in a linear unit of measure. Bar code density is often expressed in characters per inch.

Bar code label:
A label that carries a bar code and, optionally, other human-readable information; it can be affixed to an article.

Bar code reader:
A device used to scan and decode a bar code symbol.

Bar width:
The thickness of a bar measured from the edge closest to the symbol start character to the trailing edge of the same bar.

Baudrate:
The rate at which data is transferred over a serial interface, expressed in bits per second.

Bluetooth:
A wireless transmission protocol that uses radio frequency waves. More information on bluetooth can be found on the Internet site: [[1]]

Bluetooth dongle:
A device that converts electrical signals into radio frequency waves according to the bluetooth standard.

CCD reader:
A scanning device which uses the CCD technology. CCD is an acronym for Charge Coupled Device. Light from a lightsource within the CCD scanner is reflected by a bar code label and falls on an array of light sensitive elements in the scanner, the CCD. Whether the light is reflected depends on black or white parts of the bar code. The presence (or absence) of reflected light determines the presence (or absence) of electrical charge (electrons) in the distinct elements. The result is an electrical image of the bar code which can be used for further processing.

Character:
A single group of bars and spaces which represent an individual number, letter or punctuation mark. It is usually composed of six, seven or eight bits.

Check digit:
A character included within a symbol whose value is based, mathematically, on other characters within the symbol. It is used to perform a mathematical check to ensure the accuracy of the read.

CMOS interface:
A serial interface that typically is used between embedded devices. The CMOS standard defines a logical "1" level at the same level as the power supply of the electronic components that are used inside the device.

CMOS reader:
A scanning device, which uses the CMOS technology. CMOS is an acronym for Complementary Metal Oxide Semiconductors. Light from a light source within the CMOS reader is reflected by a bar code label and falls on an array of light sensitive elements in the reader, the CMOS sensor. Whether the light is reflected depends on black or white parts of the bar code. The presence (or absence) of reflected light determines the presence (or absence) of electrical charge (electrons) in the distinct elements. The result is an electrical image of the bar code, which can be used for further processing.

Composite code:
A bar code label that consists of two parts of two different symbologies: a linear (1D) part and a composite (2D) part. The composite part holds meta information about the product (like manufacturing date, quantity, etc.), while the linear part holds the product identification code.

Data:
Digital information.

Default:
A standard option or parameter setting. Default settings are present in the memory of a device. If no other value or option is chosen within a program (or bar code menu), the default settings are automatically chosen.

Disable:
To disable an option means, making it impossible for this option to get active.

ECC:
An acronym for Error Correction Code. See error correction.

ECI:
An acronym for Extended Channel Interpretation. This refers to a method used in 2-dimensional bar codes to encode characters in other code sets than ASCII.

Emulation:
The imitation of all or part of one device by another so that the mimicking device can accept the same data and perform the same functions as the actual device.

Enable:
To enable an option means, to activate it.

Error correction:
The possibility to correct read errors in a bar code. Most 2D bar codes have extra information that allows correction of the bar code. This makes it possible to read (partly) damaged bar codes.

Fixed length:
Relates to a symbol in which the data elements must be of specific length.

Flow control:
See handshaking.

Format:
A message or data structure that allows identification of control and data parts by their position within a frame.

Handshaking:
The initial exchange between two data communication systems prior to and during data transmission. The first unit sends a signal, then waits for an appropriate signal in response. A handshake method (such as XON/XOFF), parity setting, number of data bits, and number of stop bits.

IEEE 802.15.4: A wireless transmission protocol that uses radio frequency waves.

Intensity:
The amount of radiant or luminous flux per unit solid angle that is diverging from a light source.

Inter character delay:
The time between transmitting two characters.

Interface:
Allows devices to communicate with each other. Used most often to refer to the design of hardware and software which allows connection of network components and transfer of information.

ISO:
An acronym for International Organization for Standardization. This is referring to an organization, which is an authority for international standards.

Keyboard wedge:
This device permits you to connect a bar code reader between the computer and it_s keyboard by way of an Y-cable. The computer "suggests" that the scanned data is keyboard entered. Normal software can still be used.

Laser reader:
A scanning device which utilises a laser diode for it's source of illumination. Laser is an acronym for Light Amplification by Stimulated Emission of Radiation. A physical process which after focusing leads a light beam with special properties. A laser beam can be very powerful. For bar code scanning a low energy, safe laser beam is used. Opticon's laser scanners are Class 1 (Highest security).

Parity:
A method of checking for errors in transmitted data. The eight bits of each transmitted character are added, and the total must always be an odd number for odd parity and an even number for even parity. If the total is wrong, the communications software detects that an error has occured during transmission and may request that the data is retransmitted.

Preamble:
Also known as common prefix. This is one or more characters, which accompany the transported data. The preamble is put in front of the code specific prefix and the bar code data itself.

Prefix:
One or more characters which accompany transported data. A prefix is put in front of the data and is part of the frame.

Postamble:
Also known as common suffix. This is one or more characters, which accompany the transported data. The postamble is transmitted at the end of the data, right after the code specific suffix.

Protocol:
Usually, a specified method for determining how and when to format and send data. A serial (asynchronous) transmission protocol might include the baudrate, handshake method (XON/XOFF, etc.), parity setting, number of data bits (character length), and number of stop bits.

Resolution:
In optics, sharpness; the ability of a scanner to read the narrow bars in bar codes.

Reader:
A device that examines a spatial pattern, one part after another, and generates analog or digital signals corresponding to the pattern. The scanner converts bar code symbols to electrical signals for input to a bar code reader decoder for processing and subsequent output through a data communications interface.

Scan engine:
The scan engine consists of an illumination part (optional), a sensor part and a digitizer part. With this, it translates a printed bar code into a computer readable form. The scan engine uses one of the following techniques: laser, CCD or CMOS.

Scan rate:
The number of scans (the attempts to recognise a bar code symbol optically) per time unit.

Start bit:
A control bit used to indicate the start of a group of data bits being sent in asynchronous transmission.

Stop bit:
A control bit used to indicate the end of a group of data bits being sent in asynchronous transmission.

Structured append:
The possibility to concatenate multiple bar codes into one block of data. This method is supported by most 2D bar codes.

Suffix:
One or more characters which accompany transported data. A suffix is put at the end of the data and is part of the frame.

Symbology:
A set of rules specifying the way in which data may be represented.

Trigger:
A signal that initiates an action or a series of events. The trigger button on a bar code reader will start the scan-engine and try to decode the scanned and digitized data.

TTL interface:
A serial interface that typically is used between embedded devices. The TTL standard defines a logical "1" at 5 volt.

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